Refining in pulp Stock Preparation aims to design fibers for paper-making processes and desired properties. It is crucial to optimize refining parameters to ensure required stock and paper properties. High Consistency Refiner is crucial for virgin chemical pulp stock preparation, while mechanical and recycled fibers have lower importance. Recycled fibers typically aim for strength increase at low Schopper Riegler increase and shive elimination or reduction.
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High Consistency Refiner refines pulp at above 30% consistency, focusing on shear force effects between fibers. This requires higher pulp stock consistency which is achived by dewatering process using Poly Disc Filter and Screw Press. High Consistency Refining preserves fiber length, resulting in dynamic strength, elongation, and porosity. High-consistency refining can be performed using special refiners or disk dispersers without steam heating.
The Conical Disc Refiner is a unique single-disc cantilever refiner with hydraulic positioning for the rotor disc and non-rotating stator disc. It features a flat inner refining zone and a conical outer zone. The disc clearance on the conical zone is regulated by the hydraulic system, while the flat zone is operated by an electric motor with worm gear. Both the rotors and stators have segment holders to mount the segments.
This refiner is one of the first types of refiners used in mechanical pulping, and it is one of the few types of refiners that is still used in new installations. This particular type of disc refiner is distinguished by having the lowest operating costs and the smallest capacities available.
Double disk refiners are popular for high-consistency refining due to their economical operation, easy maintenance, and wide pattern variability. These refiners have conical or cylindrical rotor/stator units, with a peripheral speed of 25 ms−1.
Thermo Mechanical Pulping (TMP) is a process that uses high temperature to soften lignin and generate steam, reducing electrical energy consumption in mechanical pulping. The process includes various refining treatments, categorized by feed suspension concentration. Low consistency (LC) and high consistency (HC) refining are used, with pressurized steam applied before and during refining. However, energy consumption in TMP mills remains significant due to the energy needed to remove lignin and produce suitable papermaking fibers.
The thermo mechanical pulping process includes a "latency removal" stage, removing high curls in fibers during refining. This curl reduces length, strengthens fibers, and diminishes paper strength. The pulp is heated at low consistency in a stirred tank, causing fibers to untangle and straighten out.
The mechanical pulping process is highly energy-intensive, with refiners consuming 30 to 45% of the total energy. To reduce energy consumption, mills can improve refining efficiency by reducing high-consistency treatments and incorporating low-consistency (LC) refining. LC treatment is more energy-efficient, possibly due to uniformity in treatment. The survival of the pulping industry depends on mills' ability to reduce energy consumption in refiners.
High Consistency Refining is crucial in the pulp and paper industry for achieving a harmonious balance between stock and paper properties. It is essential for virgin chemical pulp preparation, focusing on dynamic strength, elongation, and porosity preservation with less energy consumed. Various High Consistency Refiner Machinery types like Double Disc Refiner, Conical Refiner, and Singal Disc Refiner offer cost-effective refining. The TMP-Highly Consistent Refining System offers energy-saving benefits. Addressing energy consumption is crucial for sustainable practices and a shift towards efficient low consistent refining and innovative technologies.