Paper production was started around 2000 years ago and is still continuing its trend in this 21st century.
Papers are produced in paper factories also called paper mills. The paper mills have different types of machinery that carry out the process of papermaking. There are several processes which are carried out separately with the help of different types of equipment which have their own serving purposes. The first step in the paper manufacturing process is stock preparation. In stocks preparation, the types of production equipment used are headbox and wire section, press section, dryer section, machine calender, reel.
In this process the raw material, which is mainly wood, timber, scraps, clothes, fibers, e-wastes, plastic wastes, etc. are collected. This raw material is shredded into small pieces and sent further for the pulping process.
The main operation in the paper mill industry is raw-material processing. This process consists of mechanical pulp production, chemical pulp production, sulfate and sulfite process, and processing paper for recycling. The types of equipment of paper machine are – Suspension at the headbox, Sheet formation in the wire section, Filtration / Thickening, Twinformer, and Gapformer, De-watering in the Press section, Dryer section, End group process. There are surface treatments like size press and film press.
The next part is Upgrading and Cutting. This part involves different operations such as paper coating, paper smoothing, paper cutting. The coating of the paper is done with a coating machine. Coating a paper improves its visual and physical characteristics. The paper gains whiteness and shade, gloss, and smoothness. It also improves its printing function, allowing the use of very fine screens, giving more color in thinner ink layers, and producing more contrast in printed images.
The last part is the Paper Finishing. The types of equipment used in finishing are calender, rewinder, slitter rewinder, Guillotine, and Cross cutter. The final stage is packaging where the paper is packaged for transport to the customer. The packaging material is designed as per the customers’ requests. Protection against damage and moisture is a very important concern. Ream wrapping is used as an advertising medium as well.
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